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  • 信號繼電器對軌道交通有多重要?

    時間:2018年03月26日瀏覽:1296次
    【字體:

    繼電器主要是通過觸點的閉合和斷開來實現電路控制,在城市軌道交通車輛控制電路中有著廣泛的應用。地鐵車輛的信號傳遞、邏輯控制大多數由繼電器實現,如車門狀態、氣制動狀態、受電弓控制、司機臺激活、牽引控制等都是由繼電器實現控制。由于繼電器在控制電路中有著至關重要的作用,其可靠性直接影響到地鐵信號系統的可靠性和安全性。

    一、信號繼電器的組成

    繼電器是由電磁系統和觸點系統兩大系統組成的。通常應用于自動控制電路中,它實際上是用較小的電流去控制較大電流的一種“自動開關”。故在電路中起著自動調節、安全保護、轉換電路等作用。具體由鐵芯、線圈、銜鐵、觸點簧片等組成的。 繼電器一般有兩組電路,分別為低壓控制電路和髙壓工作電路。

    電磁系統(感受系統):由線圈、鐵心、銜鐵等組成。

    觸點系統(執行機構):由動觸點、靜觸點組成。

    常開觸點:常態時動觸點與靜觸點斷開。

    常閉觸點:常態時動觸點與靜觸點接通。

    二、繼電器的工作特性

    1、額定工作電壓。繼電器正常工作時線圈所需要的電壓。

    根據繼電器的型號不同,可以是交流電壓,也可以是直流電壓。

    2、直流電阻。繼電器中線圈的直流電阻,可以用萬用表測試。

    3、吸合電流。繼電器能夠產生吸合動作的最小電流。

    在正常使用時,給定的電流必須略大于吸合電流,這樣繼電器才能穩定地工作。而對于線圈所加的工作電壓,一般不要超過額定工作電壓的1.5倍,否則會產生較大的電流而把線圈燒毀。

    1.釋放電流。繼電器產生釋放動作的最大電流。

    當繼電器吸合狀態的電流減小到一定程度時,繼電器就會恢復到未通電的釋放狀態。這時的電流遠遠小于吸合電流。

    2、觸點切換電壓和電流。

    繼電器允許加載的電壓和電流,它決定了繼電器能控制電壓和電流的大小,使用時不能超過此值,否則很容易損壞繼電器的觸點。

    三、繼電器的分類

    按動作原理分類:電磁繼電器、感應繼電器;按動作電流分類:直流繼電器、交流繼電器;按動作時間分類:正常動作繼電器、緩動繼電器;按工作可靠度分類:安全型繼電器(N型):、非安全型繼電器(C型),又稱彈力式繼電器。城市軌道交通系統大多使用安全型繼電器!

    關于安全繼電器

    安全型繼電器是指它的結構必須符合故障-安全原則,發生安全側故障的可能性遠遠大于發生危險側故障的可能性。處于禁止運行狀態的故障有利于行車安全,稱為安全側故障;處于允許運行狀態的故障可能危及行車安全,稱為危險側故障。

    在故障情況下使前接點閉合的概率遠小于后接點閉合的概率。這樣,就可以用前接點代表危險側信息,用后接點代表安全側信息。

    四、信號繼電器的作用

    1)擴大控制范圍。例如,多觸點繼電器控制信號達到某一定值時,可以按觸點組的不同形式,同時換接、開斷、接通多路電路。

    2)放大。例如,靈敏型繼電器、中間繼電器等,用一個很微小的控制量,可以控制很大功率的電路。

    3)綜合信號。例如,當多個控制信號按規定的形式輸入多繞組繼電器時,經過比較綜合,達到預定的控制效果。

    4)自動、遙控、監測。例如,自動裝置上的繼電器與其他電器一起,可以組成程序控制線路,從而實現自動化運行。

    五、信號繼電器的優點

    信號繼電器具有動作響應快、工作穩定、使用壽命長、體積小等優點。廣泛應用于電力保護、自動化、運動、遙控、測量和通信等裝置中。


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